丙烯酰胺

  • 基本信息
  • 制备方法及用途
  • 物化性质
  • 安全信息
  • 毒理性
  • MSDS
  • 结构与计算化学
  • 上游产品
  • 下游产品
  • 表征图谱

丙烯酰胺 基本信息

中文名称:
丙烯酰胺 
中文别名:
丙烯酰胺;
2-丙烯酰胺;
丙烯酸酰胺 
英文名称:
Acrylamide
英文别名:
acrylamide;
Akrylamid;
optimum;
PROPENAMIDE;
vinylamide;
acrylagel;
Acrylamid;
CH2CHCONH2;
2-propenamide;
carbamoylethylene;
Acrylamide;
ethyleneamide;
vinylcarboxamide;
aam;
acrylic amide 
CAS No.:
79-06-1
分 子 式:

C3H5NO

分 子 量:
71.08
精确分子量:
71.03710
PSA:
43.09000
MDL:
MFCD00008032
EINECS:
201-173-7
BRN:
605349
InChI:
InChI=1/C3H5NO/c1-2-3(4)5/h2H,1H2,(H2,4,5)
危险品标志:

toxict

风险术语:

R45;R46;R20/21;R25;R36/38;R43;S53;S45;S24;S36/37/39;S26;S36/37;

分子结构式:
SDS:
查看

丙烯酰胺 制备方法及用途

制备方法

1.丙烯腈硫酸水合法:丙烯腈和水在硫酸存在下水解成丙烯酰胺硫酸盐,然后用液氨中和生成丙烯酰胺溶液和硫酸铵,反应物经分离过滤后,将滤液结晶、干燥即得成品。此法的缺点是副产大量价值低廉的硫酸铵,又存在严重的硫酸腐蚀和污染等问题。每吨丙烯酰胺副产硫酸铵2280kg。原料消耗定额:丙烯腈(100%)980kg/t、硫酸(100%)200kg/t、氨(100%)700kg/t。 2.丙烯腈直接水合法:丙烯腈与水在铜催化剂存在下,在85-125℃和0.3-0.4MPa压力下直接水合而得。该法得到的丙烯酰胺水溶液(只含少量副产物),可直接作为产品销售,避免丙烯酰胺粉尘污染,用水溶液对劳动保护是有利的。产品参考规格:外观为白色鳞片状或粉状。一级品含量≥95%;二级品含量≥90%;三级品含量≥85%。 3.酶催化法:在室温下将丙烯腈水溶液送入装有菌种催化剂的固定床反应器中,经反应丙烯腈100%转化为丙烯酰胺。经分离,甚至可不经精制、浓缩就得到丙烯酰胺的工业产品。

合成制备方法

1.丙烯腈硫酸水合法:丙烯腈和水在硫酸存在下水解成丙烯酰胺硫酸盐,然后用液氨中和生成丙烯酰胺溶液和硫酸铵,反应物经分离过滤后,将滤液结晶、干燥即得成品。此法的缺点是副产大量价值低廉的硫酸铵,又存在严重的硫酸腐蚀和污染等问题。每吨丙烯酰胺副产硫酸铵2280kg。原料消耗定额:丙烯腈(100%)980kg/t、硫酸(100%)200kg/t、氨(100%)700kg/t。

2.丙烯腈直接水合法:丙烯腈与水在铜催化剂存在下,在85-125℃和0.3-0.4MPa压力下直接水合而得。该法得到的丙烯酰胺水溶液(只含少量副产物),可直接作为产品销售,避免丙烯酰胺粉尘污染,用水溶液对劳动保护是有利的。产品参考规格:外观为白色鳞片状或粉状。一级品含量≥95%;二级品含量≥90%;三级品含量≥85%。

3.酶催化法:在室温下将丙烯腈水溶液送入装有菌种催化剂的固定床反应器中,经反应丙烯腈100%转化为丙烯酰胺。经分离,甚至可不经精制、浓缩就得到丙烯酰胺的工业产品。

用途简介

制备聚丙烯酰胺凝胶,供电泳测定蛋白质分子量等。絮凝剂,土壤稳定剂,增强纸张强度,改进纤维质量,粘结剂。

用途

1.制备聚丙烯酰胺凝胶,供电泳测定蛋白质分子量等。絮凝剂。增强纸张强度。改进纤维质量。粘结剂。

2.丙烯酰胺是丙烯酰胺系和甲基丙烯酰胺系产品中最重要的产品。自1954年用于工业后,需要逐步增长。主要用来制取能溶于水的聚合物,而这种聚丙烯酰胺可作为添加剂用以提高石油的回收率;用作絮凝剂、增厚剂和造纸助剂。少量丙烯酰胺被用来将亲水中心引入亲油的聚合物中以改善粘度,提高软化点和提高树脂的抗溶剂性,并且可以为染料的受色性引入一个中心。丙烯酰胺还常常被用作感光聚合物的一个组分。在乙烯基聚合物中,在交联反应中可以使用这种酰胺基的反应活性。丙烯酰胺可以与某些单体,如乙酸乙烯、苯乙烯、氯乙烯、乙烯叉二氯、丙烯腈等共聚获得具有多种用途的聚合物。主要应用领域:(1)油田用 该品用于油田注水井调整吸水剖面。将本品与引发剂、除氧剂等混合,注入注水井高渗透层带。在地层下聚合成高粘度的聚合物。封堵大孔道,增加扫油体积,提高采油率。此外,本品的聚合物或共聚物,可用于三次采油、压裂、堵水、钻井混浆处理以及化学灌浆等。(2)作絮凝剂 该品的部分水解物或与甲基纤维素的接枝共聚物,用于工厂废水处理及下水处理。(3)土壤改良剂 利用该品水解物作土壤改良剂,可使土壤团粒化,改善空气流通性、水渗透性和保水性。(4)纤维改性与树脂加工 将丙烯酰胺进行氨基甲酰化或接枝聚合。可用于改善含合成纤维的各种纤维的树脂整理,经纱以及作印染浆料使用,以改善纤维织物的基础物性,防皱、防缩和手感好。(5)纸力增强剂 丙烯酰胺与丙烯酸的共聚物或聚丙烯酰胺的部分水解物,可用作纸力培强剂,代替已经使用的淀粉、水溶性氨基树脂或者共用。(6)胶粘剂 有聚丙烯酰胺与酚醛树脂溶液并用的玻璃纤维胶粘剂,以及与合成橡胶并用的压敏胶。

3.核酸分子量的测定。染料合成。塑胶合成。胶粘剂。制备聚丙烯酰胺凝胶,供电泳测定蛋白质分子量。

4.合成纤维工业和合成材料工业的重要原料之一,单体和他的均聚物、共聚物都越来越广泛地被用在国防建设、石油化工、选矿、造纸、纺织和水处理等方面。

5.用于生产絮凝剂、分散剂、添加剂和水溶性聚合物等。[29]

丙烯酰胺 物化性质

外观与性状:
白色晶体
密度:
1,322 g/cm3
熔点:
82-86 °C(lit.)
沸点:
125 °C25 mm Hg(lit.)
闪点:
138 °C
水溶解性:
SOLUBLE, 216 g/100 mL
折射率:
1.460
蒸汽密度:
2.45 (vs air)
存储条件/存储方法:
库房通风低温干燥,与氧化剂、酸类、食品化工添加剂分开存放
稳定性相关:

1.室温下稳定,但熔融时则骤然聚合。易燃,受高热分解放出腐蚀性气体。受紫外线照射或达熔点温度时很容易聚合同时放热,也可与其他丙烯酸酯、苯乙烯信卤代乙烯等进行共聚。能进行加成、还原、水解等反应。与硫酸反应生成盐。与甲醛反应生成N-羟甲基丙烯酰胺,在酸性催化剂存在下,水解生成丙烯酸。疑为致癌物,毒性较大。丙烯酰胺中有酰氨基和双键两个反应中心。在酸或碱催化剂作用下很容易水解,分别生成丙烯酸盐和丙烯酸。双键可以发生加成反应及聚合反应。安全处理的要求是避免人体与丙烯酰胺接触,防止皮肤对其粉尘或蒸气的吸收。

2.本品剧毒。其蒸气可经呼吸道吸入或经皮肤吸收而引起中毒。主要对中枢神经系统有危害。对眼、皮肤亦有强烈的刺激作用。对家兔LD50为126mg/kg。空气中最高允许浓度0.3mg/m3。生产装置应密闭,厂房要有良好的通风条件,操作人员要穿戴好防护用品。

3.容易通过皮肤和黏膜被人体吸收和累积,引起神经系统的症状,皮肤出现红斑、脱皮;呕吐,腹痛。中毒者肌动电流图和脑电图异常。工作场所空气中有毒物质时间加权平均容许浓度为0.3mg/m3;短时间接触容许浓度为0.9mg/m3。

4.稳定性[24]   稳定

5.禁配物[25]   强氧化剂、酸类、碱类

6.避免接触的条件[26]  受热、光照

7.聚合危害[27]  聚合

其它信息:

1.性状:白色或淡黄色结晶,无气味。[1]

2.pH值:5.0~6.5(50%水溶液)[2]

3.熔点(℃):84.5[3]

4.沸点(℃):125(3.33kPa);192.6[4]

5.相对密度(水=1):1.12[5]

6.相对蒸气密度(空气=1):2.45[6]

7.饱和蒸气压(kPa):0.21(84.5℃)[7]

8.临界压力(MPa):5.73[8]

9.辛醇/水分配系数:-0.67[9]

10.闪点(℃):138(CC)[10]

11.引燃温度(℃):424[11]

12.爆炸上限(%):20.6[12]

13.爆炸下限(%):2.7[13]

14.溶解性:溶于水、乙醇、乙醚、丙酮,不溶于苯、己烷。[14]

丙烯酰胺 安全信息

包装等级:
III
风险类别:
6.1
海关代码:
2924199040
WGK_Germany:
3
德国有关水污染物质的分类清单
危险类别码:
R22;R43;R45;R46;R48/20/21/22
安全说明:
S53-S45-S24-S36/37/39-S26-S36/37
RTECS号:
AS3325000
安全标志:
S24:避免接触皮肤。
S26:万一接触眼睛,立即使用大量清水冲洗并送医诊治。
S45:出现意外或者感到不适,立刻到医生那里寻求帮助(最好带去产品容器标签)。
S53:避免暴露——使用前先阅读专门的说明。
:
:
危险标志:
T:Toxic

丙烯酰胺 毒理性

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
AS3325000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Acrylamide
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
79-06-1
BEILSTEIN REFERENCE NO. :
0605349
LAST UPDATED :
199712
DATA ITEMS CITED :
140
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C3-H5-N-O
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
71.09
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
ZV1U1

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Rinsed with water
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
124 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
400 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Blood - other changes Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - transaminases Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - peptidases
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
90 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Unreported
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
208 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - tremor Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay)
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
107 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
170 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Unreported
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
156 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - tremor Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay)
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
150 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
1680 uL/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - hallucinations, distorted perceptions
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Unreported
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
280 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - tremor Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay)
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
150 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
170 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - tremor Behavioral - muscle contraction or spasticity Gastrointestinal - nausea or vomiting
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Unreported
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
173 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - tremor Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay)
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Bird - quail
DOSE/DURATION :
186 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage) Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay)
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - species unspecified
DOSE/DURATION :
100 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - species unspecified
DOSE/DURATION :
190 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1035 mg/kg/15W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - muscle weakness Behavioral - ataxia Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
608 mg/kg/16D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Spinal Cord - other degenerative changes Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1800 mg/kg/90D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - structural change in nerve or sheath Behavioral - fluid intake Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
600 mg/kg/6W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay) Behavioral - ataxia
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
286 mg/kg/28D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - changes in brain weight Cardiac - changes in heart weight Blood - pigmented or nucleated red blood cells
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
108 mg/kg/3W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - other degenerative changes Spinal Cord - other degenerative changes Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - multiple enzyme effects
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
168 mg/kg/2W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - muscle weakness
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
780 mg/kg/13W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Spinal Cord - demyelination Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - structural change in nerve or sheath Behavioral - ataxia
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
400 mg/kg/8D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - other degenerative changes Spinal Cord - other degenerative changes Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - other transferases
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1155 mg/kg/13W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - sensory change involving peripheral nerve Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - recording from peripheral motor nerve Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1 gm/kg/8W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - spastic paralysis with or without sensory change Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - structural change in nerve or sheath
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
568 mg/kg/8W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Related to Chronic Data - changes in testicular weight
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
1200 mg/kg/4W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - muscle weakness Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
330 mg/kg/22D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - recording from peripheral motor nerve Behavioral - muscle weakness Behavioral - ataxia
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Primate - monkey
DOSE/DURATION :
671 mg/kg/75W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Autonomic Nervous System - other (direct) parasympathomimetic Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay) Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Primate - monkey
DOSE/DURATION :
450 mg/kg/61D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - sensory change involving peripheral nerve
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Primate - monkey
DOSE/DURATION :
200 mg/kg/2D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - chronic pulmonary edema Liver - fatty liver degeneration Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Primate - monkey
DOSE/DURATION :
200 mg/kg/4D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - cat
DOSE/DURATION :
771 mg/kg/1Y-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - muscle weakness
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - cat
DOSE/DURATION :
150 mg/kg/10D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - other degenerative changes Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - dehydrogenases Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - other Enzymes
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - cat
DOSE/DURATION :
300 mg/kg/10D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Spinal Cord - other degenerative changes Behavioral - muscle weakness
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Bird - chicken
DOSE/DURATION :
450 mg/kg/3W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - muscle weakness Behavioral - ataxia
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1456 mg/kg/2Y-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Reproductive - Tumorigenic effects - testicular tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
24 mg/kg/8W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - neoplastic by RTECS criteria Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
300 mg/kg/2W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - tumors Skin and Appendages - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
72 mg/kg/8W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - neoplastic by RTECS criteria Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1456 mg/kg/2Y-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Reproductive - Tumorigenic effects - uterine tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
200 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 7-16 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - biochemical and metabolic
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
560 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-21 day(s) after conception lactating female 10 day(s) post-birth
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Maternal Effects - parturition Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - stillbirth Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
75 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 5 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - male fertility index (e.g. # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
140 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 2 week(s) pre-mating - 3 week(s) post-birth
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - growth statistics (e.g.%, reduced weight gain)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
150 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 5 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - pre-implantation mortality (e.g. reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
350 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 7 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - spermatogenesis (incl. genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
400 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 8 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - behavioral
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
571 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 16 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
95 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 4 week(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - spermatogenesis (incl. genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) Reproductive - Fertility - male fertility index (e.g. # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females) Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
95 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 4 week(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
71 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 4 week(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - litter size (e.g. # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
225 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 10-12 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
125 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 1 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
250 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 5 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - male fertility index (e.g. # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females) Reproductive - Fertility - pre-implantation mortality (e.g. reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
300 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 8-10 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
75 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 12 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
225 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 10-12 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death
TYPE OF TEST :
Specific locus test
TYPE OF TEST :
Micronucleus test
TYPE OF TEST :
Unscheduled DNA synthesis
TYPE OF TEST :
Sister chromatid exchange
TYPE OF TEST :
Dominant lethal test
TYPE OF TEST :
Micronucleus test
TYPE OF TEST :
Specific locus test
TYPE OF TEST :
DNA damage
TYPE OF TEST :
Unscheduled DNA synthesis
TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TYPE OF TEST :
Sister chromatid exchange
TYPE OF TEST :
Sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction
TYPE OF TEST :
Dominant lethal test
TYPE OF TEST :
Dominant lethal test
TYPE OF TEST :
Sperm Morphology
TYPE OF TEST :
Sperm Morphology
TYPE OF TEST :
Heritable translocation test

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction
TEST SYSTEM :
Rodent - hamster Lung
REFERENCE :
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964- Volume(issue)/page/year: 245,191,1990 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-Animal carcinogen DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 ACGIH TLV-TWA 0.03 mg/m3 (skin) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 IARC Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 39,41,1986 IARC Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 60,389,1994 IARC Cancer Review:Human No Adequate Data IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 39,41,1986 IARC Cancer Review:Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 60,389,1994 IARC Cancer Review:Group 2A IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 60,389,1994 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 11,129,1975 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971- Volume(issue)/page/year: 2,365,1973 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW CMTVAS Cahiers de Medecine du Travail. (Association Professionnelle Belge des Medecine du Travail, rue du Bultia, 6280 Gerpinnes, Belgium) V.1- 1963- Volume(issue)/page/year: 10(3),49,1973 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW CJNSA2 Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. (Faculty of Medicine, 2500 University Dr., Calgary, Alberta, Canada) V.1- 1974- Volume(issue)/page/year: 1,143,1974 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW CJNSA2 Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. (Faculty of Medicine, 2500 University Dr., Calgary, Alberta, Canada) V.1- 1974- Volume(issue)/page/year: 1,152,1974 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC. Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,445,1981 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** MSHA STANDARD-air:TWA 0.3 mg/m3 (skin) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,5,1971 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 0.3 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 0.3 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 0.3 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 OSHA PEL (Fed Cont):8H TWA 0.3 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 41,50-204.50,1994 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 0.3 mg/m3;Skin;Carcinogen JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:TWA 0.3 mg/m3;Skin;Carcinogen JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 0.3 mg/m3;Skin;Carcinogen JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 0.3 mg/m3;STEL 0.9 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 0.3 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-GERMANY;Skin;Carcinogen JAN 1993 OEL-HUNGARY:STEL 0.3 mg/m3;Skin;Carcinogen JAN 1993 OEL-JAPAN:TWA 0.3 mg/m3;Skin JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 0.3 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE PHILIPPINES:TWA 0.3 mg/m3;Skin JAN 1993 OEL-RUSSIA:STEL 0.2 mg/m3;Skin JAN 1993 OEL-SWEDEN:TWA 0.3 mg/m3;STEL 0.9 mg/m3;Skin JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 0.3 mg/m3;Skin;Carcinogen JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 0.3 mg/m3;STEL 0.6 mg/m3;Skin JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO ACRYLAMIDE-air:10H CA TWA 0.03 mg/m3 (Sk) REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 03540 No. of Facilities: 442 (estimated) No. of Industries: 10 No. of Occupations: 24 No. of Employees: 7047 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 03540 No. of Facilities: 453 (estimated) No. of Industries: 19 No. of Occupations: 22 No. of Employees: 10651 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 721 (estimated)
毒理学数据:

1.急性毒性[15]

LD50:150~180mg/kg(大鼠经口)

2.刺激性[16]

家兔经皮:500mg(24h),轻度刺激。

家兔经眼:100mg(24h),中度刺激。

3.亚急性与慢性毒性[17]  多次重复染毒,几乎全部动物发生周围神经损害,表现四肢肌肉无力、后肢严重瘫痪、肢体远端肌肉萎缩、感觉障碍及腱反射消失。

4.致敏性[18]  对皮肤有致敏作用。

致突变性  姐妹染色单体交换:大鼠经口600mg/kg(连续10d)。精子形态学改变:小鼠腹腔注射100mg/kg。

5.致畸性[19]  雌性小鼠受孕后6~17d,经口染毒540mg/kg,引发仔鼠肌肉骨骼系统发育畸形。

6.致癌性[20]  IARC致癌性评论:G2A,可能人类致癌物。

7.其他[21]  大鼠经口最低中毒剂量(TDLo):200mg/kg(孕7~16d),引起新生鼠生化和代谢改变。大鼠经口最低中毒剂量(TDLo):544mg/kg(9周,雄性),引起精子、雄性生育指数改变和植入后死亡率增加。

生态数据:

1.生态毒性[22]

LC50:103~115mg/L(96h)(黑头呆鱼);110mg/L(96h)(虹鳟鱼);100mg/L(96h)(蓝鳃太阳鱼);160mg/L(48h)(水蚤)

2.生物降解性  暂无资料

3.非生物降解性[23]  空气中,当羟基自由基浓度为5.00×105个/cm3时,降解半衰期为1.4d(理论)。

丙烯酰胺 MSDS

国标编号: 61740
CAS: 79-06-1
中文名称: 丙烯酰胺
英文名称: Acrylamide
别 名:
分子式: C3H5NO;CH2CHCONH2
分子量: 71.08
熔 点: 84.5℃ 沸点:125℃/3
密 度: 相对密度(水=1)1.12;
蒸汽压: 0.21kPa(84.5℃)
溶解性: 溶于水、乙醇、乙醚、丙酮,不溶于苯
稳定性: 稳定
外观与性状: 白色结晶固体,无气味
危险标记: 15(毒害品)
用 途: 用于制造水溶性聚合物即聚丙烯酰胺

2.对环境的影响:
一、健康危害

侵入途径:吸入、食入、经皮吸收。
健康危害:本品具神经毒作用。可引起疲嗜睡、手指麻木,位置性震颤,步态紊乱,肌肉萎缩,肌肉无力,手出汗脱屑以及接触性皮炎等。

二、毒理学资料及环境行为

毒性:中等毒类。
急性毒性:LD50 150~180mg/kg(大鼠经口)
刺激性:家兔经眼:5mg(24小时),重度刺激。
亚急性和慢性毒性:大鼠经口食物中添加0.02%~0.04%本品,1~6个月,出现末梢神经,神经轴突、髓膜变性。
致突变性:姊妹染色单体交换:大鼠经口600mg/kg,10天(连续)。精子形态学改变:小鼠腹腔注射100mg/kg。
生殖毒性:大鼠经口最低中毒剂量(TDL0):200mg/kg(孕7~16天),引起新生鼠生化和代谢改变。大鼠经口最低中毒剂量(TDL0):544mg/kg(9周,雄性),引起精子、雄性生育指数改变和植入后死亡率增加。
致癌性:IARC致癌性评论:动物阳性。

危险特性:遇高热、明火或与氧化剂接触,有引起燃烧的危险。若遇高热,可能发生聚合反应,出现大量放热现象,引起容器破裂和爆炸事故。
燃烧(分解)产物:一氧化碳、二氧化碳。


3.现场应急监测方法:
 


4.实验室监测方法:
气相色谱法 《水质分析大全》 张宏陶等主编
气相色谱法《固体废弃物试验与分析评价手册》中国环境监测总站等译
色谱-质谱法 《水和废水标准检验法》第19版译文,江苏省环境监测中心


5.环境标准:
前苏联(1975)车间卫生标准 0.3mg/m3
中国(待颁布) 饮用水源水中有害物质的最高容许浓度 0.0005mg/L


6.应急处理处置方法:
一、泄漏应急处理

隔离泄漏污染区,周围设警告标志,建议应急处理人员戴好防毒面具,穿化学防护服。不要直接接触泄漏物,用洁清的铲子收集于干燥净洁有盖的容器中,运至废物处理场所。也可以用大量水冲洗,经稀释的洗水放入废水系统。如大量泄漏,收集回收或无害处理后废弃。
废弃物处置方法:用焚烧法。焚烧炉排出的氮氧化物通过洗涤器除去。

二、防护措施

呼吸系统防护:空气中浓度超标时,应该佩带防毒面具。紧急事态抢救或逃生时,佩带自给式呼吸器。
眼睛防护:必要时戴安全防护眼镜。
防护服:穿相应的防护服。
手防护:戴防化学品手套。
其它:工作现场禁止吸烟、进食和饮水。工作后,彻底清洗。单独存放被毒物污染的衣服,洗后再用。进行就业前和定期的体检。

三、急救措施

皮肤接触:脱去污染的衣着,用肥皂水及清水彻底冲洗。
眼睛接触:立即提起眼睑,用流动清水冲洗。
吸入:脱离现场至空气新鲜处。必要时进行人工呼吸。就医。
食入:误服者给饮大量温水,催吐。就医。

灭火方法:二氧化碳、干粉、砂土。

丙烯酰胺 分子结构与计算化学数据

分子结构数据

1、摩尔折射率:19.23

2、摩尔体积(cm3/mol):73.9

3、等张比容(90.2K):174.6

4、表面张力(dyne/cm):31.0

5、极化率(10-24cm3):7.62

计算化学数据

1、疏水参数计算参考值(XlogP):-0.7

2、氢键供体数量:1

3、氢键受体数量:1

4、可旋转化学键数量:1

5、互变异构体数量:2

6、拓扑分子极性表面积(TPSA):43.1

7、重原子数量:5

8、表面电荷:0

9、复杂度:57.9

10、同位素原子数量:0

11、确定原子立构中心数量:0

12、不确定原子立构中心数量:0

13、确定化学键立构中心数量:0

14、不确定化学键立构中心数量:0

15、共价键单元数量:1

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