碳化钨

  • 基本信息
  • 制备方法及用途
  • 物化性质
  • 安全信息
  • 毒理性
  • MSDS
  • 结构与计算化学

碳化钨 基本信息

中文名称:
碳化钨 
中文别名:
碳化钨粉;
纳米碳化钨;
碳化钨(IV)粉末;
纳米碳化钨(IV)粉;
碳化钨(IV) 
英文名称:
tungsten carbide
英文别名:
Tungsten carbide;
Tungsten monocarbide,Wolfram carbide;
Tungsten Carbide;
methanidylidynetungsten(1+);
Tungsten monocarbide Wolfram carbide 
CAS No.:
12070-12-1
分 子 式:
CHCoW
分 子 量:
195.85
精确分子量:
195.95100
PSA:
0.00000
MDL:
MFCD00011464
EINECS:
235-123-0
安全术语:
S22S24/25
分子结构式:
SDS:
查看

碳化钨 制备方法及用途

制备方法

用作钢材切割工具的碳化钨,常加入碳化钛、碳化钽或它们的混合物,以提高抗爆能力。碳化钨的化学性质稳定。碳化钨粉应用于硬质合金生产材料。

合成制备方法

1.以金属钨和炭为原料,将平均粒径为3~5μm的钨粉与等物质的量的炭黑用球磨机干混,充分混合后,加压成型后放入石墨盘,再在石墨电阻炉或感应电炉中加热至1400~1700℃,最好控制在1550~1650℃。在氢气流中,最初生成W2C,继续在高温下反应生成WC。或者首先将六羰基钨[W(CO)6]在650~1000℃、CO气氛中热分解制得钨粉,然后与一氧化碳于1150℃反应得到WC,温度高于该温度可生成W2C。

2.将三氧化钨WO3加氢还原制得钨粉(平均粒度3~5μm)。再把钨粉与炭黑按等摩尔比的混合物(用球磨机干混约10h),在1t/cm2左右的压力下加压成型。将该加压成型料块放进石墨盘或坩埚内,用石墨电阻炉或感应电炉在氢气流中(使用露点为-35℃的纯氢)加热至1400~1700℃(最好是1550~1650℃),使之渗碳则生成WC。反应从钨粒周围开始进行,因为在反应初期生成W2C,由于反应不完全(主要是反应温度低)除WC之外尚残存有未反应的W及中间产物W2C。所以必须加热到上述高温。应该根据原料钨的粒度大小来确定最高温度。如平均粒度为150μm左右的粗粒,则在1550~1650℃的高温下进行反应。

制备WC的反应装置如下:

 

图VI-7  气相分解法的制备WC的反应装置

1—柱塞;2—阀门;3—CO气;4—电炉;5—石英粒;6—不锈钢罐;7—瓷反应管

2.气相分解法。这是将六羰基钨W(CO)6经热分解制得钨粉。然后用一氧化碳气进行渗碳而制备WC的方法。本法的特点在于:不需要制法1那样的高温,而是用比较简单的反应装置并在低温(1150℃)下就能容易制得WC。如图Ⅵ7所示。将填充石英等颗粒的不锈钢罐装到立式瓷制反应管中,在CO气流中,将W(CO)6迅速加热到分解温度,首先得到钨粉。此时,即使把分解温度从650℃升到1000℃,所产生的钨粉大小几乎不变。用约1mm的W(CO)6结晶,可制得6~10μm的钨粉。从W变成WC,可接着使用如图所示装置,在CO气流中,于1150℃下保持1h就可以了。如果温度再升高,由于生成含碳少的W2C,所以加热时需要加以注意。

用途简介

用途

1. 大量用作高速切削车刀、窑炉结构材料、喷气发动机部件、金属陶瓷材料、电阻发热元件等制得。

2.用于制造切削工具、耐磨部件,铜、钴、铋等金属的熔炼坩埚,耐磨半导体薄膜。


碳化钨 物化性质

外观与性状:
灰色至黑色粉末
密度:
15.63 g/cm3
熔点:
2870ºC
沸点:
6000ºC
存储条件/存储方法:

应贮存在阴凉、干燥的库房中,运输中要注意包装容器完好,防雨淋和防日光曝晒

稳定性相关:

常温常压下稳定

避免的物料 氧化物.溶于硝酸与氢氟酸的混酸和王水中,不溶于冷水。相对密度d181563。耐酸性强。硬度高。弹性模量大。

灰色带有金属光泽的粉末,含理论结合碳为6.13%(质量分数)。耐酸性强[108]。属于六方晶系,a=0.2900nm,c=0.2831nm。密度15.7g/cm3、微维氏硬度(负荷50g)为2080kg/mm2。很硬、弹性率也大(72700kg/mm2)。熔点虽高(据记载有2600℃,也有2870℃,因为熔融时发生分解所以不准确),但因形成蒸气压高的多孔性氧化物,故耐酸性下降。沸点6000℃,不溶于冷水,溶于HNO3和HF的混合酸中。

其它信息:

1.       性状:灰色带有金属光泽的粉末。

2.       密度(g/mL,18℃):15.63

3.       相对蒸汽密度(g/mL,空气=1):未确定

4.       熔点(ºC):2870

5.       沸点(ºC,常压):6000

6.       沸点(ºC,1mmHg):未确定

7.       折射率:未确定

8.       闪点(ºC):未确定

9.       比旋光度(º):未确定

10.    自燃点或引燃温度(ºC):未确定

11.    蒸气压(20ºC):未确定

12.    饱和蒸气压(kPa,60ºC):未确定

13.    燃烧热(KJ/mol):未确定

14.    临界温度(ºC):未确定

15.    临界压力(KPa):未确定

16.    油水(辛醇/水)分配系数的对数值:未确定

17.    爆炸上限(%,V/V):未确定

18.    爆炸下限(%,V/V):未确定

19.    溶解性:不溶于水,溶于硝酸和氢氟酸的混合液和王水。

20. 莫氏硬度:9

碳化钨 安全信息

包装等级:
III
风险类别:
4.1
危险类别码:
R23
安全说明:
22-24/25
安全标志:
S22:不要吸入粉尘。
S24/25:防止皮肤和眼睛接触。

碳化钨 毒理性

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
YO7250000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Tungsten carbide
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
12070-12-1
LAST UPDATED :
199806
DATA ITEMS CITED :
21
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C-W
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
195.86
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
.WO..C

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
DNA damage
TEST SYSTEM :
Human Leukocyte
REFERENCE :
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964- Volume(issue)/page/year: 392,31,1997 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-TWA 5 mg(W)/m3; STEL 10 mg(W)/m3 DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** MSHA STANDARD-air:TWA 5 mg(W)/m3 DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,272,1971 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 5 mg(W)/m3;STEL 10 mg(W)/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:TWA 5 mg(W)/m3;STEL 10 mg(W)/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 5 mg(W)/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 5 mg(W)/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 5 mg(W)/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE PHILIPPINES:TWA 1 mg(W)/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWEDEN:TWA 5 mg(W)/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 5 mg(W)/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 5 mg(W)/m3;STEL 10 mg(W)/m3 JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO CEMENTED TUNGSTEN CARBIDE-air:10H TWA 0.1 mg(Co)/m3 REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO TUNGSTEN, insoluble-air:TWA 5 mg(W)/m3;STEL 10 mg/m3 REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO CEMENTED TUNGSTEN CARBIDE-air:10H TWA 0.015 mg/m3 REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - X2977 No. of Facilities: 158 (estimated) No. of Industries: 4 No. of Occupations: 7 No. of Employees: 3395 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 297 (estimated)
毒理学数据:

1.        致突变数据:人类白细胞微核测试,50mg/L;钨粉尘能引起支气管周炎、细支气管周炎、闭锁性细支气管炎和萎缩性气肿。碳化钨会引起肺脏的淋巴组织细胞的增生性反应,并逐渐出现硬化。血管壁增厚并均匀化。工作中接触碳化钨粉尘的人员胃肠道功能紊乱,肾受到刺激,上呼吸道出现卡他性炎症。

生态数据:

通常对水是不危害的,若无政府许可,勿将材料排入周围环境。

碳化钨 MSDS

Name: Tungsten Carbide 99% Material Safety Data Sheet
Synonym: Tungsten Monocarbide
CAS: 12070-12-1
Section 1 - Chemical Product   MSDS Name:Tungsten Carbide 99% Material Safety Data Sheet
Synonym:Tungsten Monocarbide

Section 2 - COMPOSITION, INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
CAS# Chemical Name content EINECS#
12070-12-1 Tungsten Carbide 99 235-123-0
Hazard Symbols: T
Risk Phrases: 23

Section 3 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
  EMERGENCY OVERVIEW
Toxic by inhalation.The toxicological properties of this material have not been fully investigated.
Potential Health Effects
Eye:
May cause eye irritation.
Skin:
May cause skin irritation.
Ingestion:
May cause irritation of the digestive tract. The toxicological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated.
Inhalation:
May cause respiratory tract irritation. The toxicological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated.
Chronic:
No information found.

Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES
  Eyes: Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.
Skin:
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
Ingestion:
Get medical aid. Do NOT induce vomiting. If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
Inhalation:
Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid.
Notes to Physician:

Section 5 - FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
  General Information:
As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion.
Extinguishing Media:
Use agent most appropriate to extinguish fire. Use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam.

Section 6 - ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
  General Information: Use proper personal protective equipment as indicated in Section 8.
Spills/Leaks:
Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. Clean up spills immediately, observing precautions in the Protective Equipment section. Avoid generating dusty conditions.
Provide ventilation.

Section 7 - HANDLING and STORAGE
  Handling:
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid ingestion and inhalation.
Storage:
Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.

Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS, PERSONAL PROTECTION
  Engineering Controls:
Facilities storing or utilizing this material should be equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety shower. Use adequate ventilation to keep airborne concentrations low.
Exposure Limits CAS# 12070-12-1: United Kingdom, WEL - TWA: (listed as tungsten, insoluble compoun 5 mg/m3 TWA (as W) United Kingdom, WEL - STEL: (listed as tungsten, insoluble compounds): 10 mg/m3 STEL (as W) Belgium - TWA: (listed as tungsten, insoluble compounds): 5 mg/m3 (as W) Belgium - STEL: (listed as tungsten, insoluble compounds): 10 mg/ VLE (as W) Malaysia: (listed as tungsten, insoluble compounds): 5 mg/m3 TWA W) Netherlands: (listed as tungsten, insoluble compounds): 5 mg/m3 M (as W) Russia: 6 mg/m3 TWA (as W) Spain: (listed as tungsten, insoluble compounds): 5 mg/m3 VLA-ED W) Spain: (listed as tungsten, insoluble compounds): 10 mg/m3 VLA-EC W) Personal Protective Equipment Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166.
Skin:
Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure.
Clothing:
Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators:
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant respirator use.

Section 9 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
 
Physical State: Solid
Color: white to off-white
Odor: Not available.
pH: Not available.
Vapor Pressure: Not available.
Viscosity: Not available.
Boiling Point: Not available.
Freezing/Melting Point: Not available.
Autoignition Temperature: Not applicable.
Flash Point: Not applicable.
Explosion Limits, lower: Not available.
Explosion Limits, upper: Not available.
Decomposition Temperature:
Solubility in water:
Specific Gravity/Density:
Molecular Formula: CW
Molecular Weight: 195.86

Section 10 - STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
  Chemical Stability:
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Conditions to Avoid:
Incompatible materials, dust generation, excess heat, strong oxidants.
Incompatibilities with Other Materials:
Oxidizing agents.
Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.
Hazardous Polymerization: Has not been reported

Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
  RTECS#:
CAS# 12070-12-1: YO7250000 LD50/LC50:
Not available.
Carcinogenicity:
Tungsten Carbide - Not listed by ACGIH, IARC, or NTP.
Other:
See actual entry in RTECS for complete information.

Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
 

Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
  Dispose of in a manner consistent with federal, state, and local regulations.

Section 14 - TRANSPORT INFORMATION
 
IATA
Not regulated as a hazardous material.
IMO
Not regulated as a hazardous material.
RID/ADR
Not regulated as a hazardous material.

Section 15 - REGULATORY INFORMATION
 
European/International Regulations
European Labeling in Accordance with EC Directives
Hazard Symbols: T
Risk Phrases:
R 23 Toxic by inhalation.
Safety Phrases:
S 22 Do not breathe dust.
S 28A After contact with skin, wash immediately with
plenty of water.
S 37 Wear suitable gloves.
S 45 In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek
medical advice immediately (show the label where
possible).
WGK (Water Danger/Protection)
CAS# 12070-12-1: 0
Canada
CAS# 12070-12-1 is listed on Canada's DSL List.
CAS# 12070-12-1 is not listed on Canada's Ingredient Disclosure List.
US FEDERAL
TSCA
CAS# 12070-12-1 is listed on the TSCA inventory.


SECTION 16 - ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
N/A

碳化钨 分子结构与计算化学数据

分子结构数据

1、摩尔折射率:无可用的

2、摩尔体积(cm3/mol):无可用的

3、等张比容(90.2K):无可用的

4、表面张力(dyne/cm):无可用的

5、介电常数:无可用的

6、极化率(10-24cm3):无可用的

7、单一同位素质量:195.9509 Da

8、标称质量:196 Da

9、平均质量:195.8507 Da

计算化学数据

1.疏水参数计算参考值(XlogP):无

2.氢键供体数量:0

3.氢键受体数量:1

4.可旋转化学键数量:0

5.互变异构体数量:无

6.拓扑分子极性表面积0

7.重原子数量:2

8.表面电荷:0

9.复杂度:10

10.同位素原子数量:0

11.确定原子立构中心数量:0

12.不确定原子立构中心数量:0

13.确定化学键立构中心数量:0

14.不确定化学键立构中心数量:0

15.共价键单元数量:1

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