• 基本信息
  • 制备方法及用途
  • 物化性质
  • 安全信息
  • 毒理性
  • MSDS
  • 结构与计算化学
  • 上游产品
  • 下游产品

镍 基本信息

中文名称:
镍 
中文别名:
镍;
雷尼镍;
分散在水中的镍催化剂;
镍粉,高纯镍;
还原镍粉;
镍粉/纳米镍粉/还原镍粉;
镍箔;
镍粉,还原镍粉;
镍粉,200目;
骨架镍;
镍离子 
英文名称:
Nickel
英文别名:
nickel atom;
Nichel;
NP 2;
Ni 4303T;
raney ni;
NI-5249P;
Ni 270;
RCH 55/5;
Nickel 
CAS No.:
7440-02-0
分 子 式:
Ni
分 子 量:
58.71
精确分子量:
57.93530
PSA:
0.00000
EINECS:
231-853-9
InChI:
InChI=1/Ni/q+2
危险品标志:
f:highly flammable
xn:harmful
风险术语:
R17; R40; R43;
安全术语:
S24; S36/37; S45;
分子结构式:
SDS:
查看

镍 制备方法及用途

制备方法

1.氧化镍用氢气在加热条件下还原,可得粉状金属镍: NiO+H22O 加热温度的不同,可影响所得镍粉的性质。若还原反应在270-280oC下进行所得镍粉十分稳定,适用于有机化合物的加氢;若维持在600-700oC,可增加反应速度,还原时间会缩短2-3倍。 2.将热分解六水合硝酸镍Ni(NO3)2·6H2O得到的NiO在300~400℃下通入经P2O5干燥的高纯度、不含氧的H2,反应15h。制得的金属粉末在密封情况下转移至与仪器连接的小玻璃泡内。金属粉末也可储存于瓶中,用乙醇覆盖。 3.高压氢还原法 在高压釜内,在催化剂存在下用氢气还原碱式碳酸镍浆料可制得平均粒径为1.0~1.2μm的镍粉。 4.蒸发冷凝法 金属镍加热到1425℃即汽化,蒸气急速冷凝即可制得镍粉。采用真空环境蒸发可以降低蒸发温度,例如在133Pa压力下加热到700℃即得到镍蒸气。急冷方式不同,生成的镍粉各具特色。 在配有高效搅拌器的4升烧杯中放入由380克氢氧化钠和1.5升蒸馏水配成的溶液,把烧杯置于冰浴中使溶液冷到10℃。在搅拌下将300克镍一铝合金(含50%左右的镍)分小批量地加到溶液中,加合金的速度使温度不超过25℃。当全部合金加完后(大约需要2小时),停止搅拌,从冰浴中取出烧杯,让内容物的温度回升到室温。待氢的放出变慢时把反应混合物放在蒸汽浴上,直至氢的放出又再变慢时为止(大约8-12小时)。开始时加热不应太快,否则溶液会起泡溢出。在加热时保持溶液的体积不变,如有需要可添加蒸馏水。加热后让镍沉下去并把大部分的液体倾掉,然后加蒸馏水使溶液恢复到原来的体积;镍被搅拌而悬浮,再让它沉下,倾出溶液。然后用蒸馏水把镍转移到2升烧杯里,再倾去水。加入54克氢氧化钠与500毫升水所组成的溶液,搅拌使催化剂悬浮起来又让它沉下;倾出碱液,这样在蒸馏水里用悬浮和倾去的办法洗涤镍,直至洗涤水对石蕊呈中性,再洗10次以上以完全除去碱(需要洗涤20至40次)。.按此洗涤程序再用95%乙醇重复洗三次,每次用200毫升,最后用无水乙醇重复洗三次,然后把催化剂盛在无水乙醇的瓶子里,把瓶子塞紧。产物非常易着火,因此任何时候都必须保存在液面以下,在悬浮物中,阮内镍的含量大约为150克。

合成制备方法

1.氧化镍用氢气在加热条件下还原,可得粉状金属镍:

NiO+H2=Ni+H2O

加热温度的不同,可影响所得镍粉的性质。若还原反应在270-280ºC下进行所得镍粉十分稳定,适用于有机化合物的加氢;若维持在600-700ºC,可增加反应速度,还原时间会缩短2-3倍。

2.将热分解六水合硝酸镍Ni(NO3)2·6H2O得到的NiO在300~400℃下通入经P2O5干燥的高纯度、不含氧的H2,反应15h。制得的金属粉末在密封情况下转移至与仪器连接的小玻璃泡内。金属粉末也可储存于瓶中,用乙醇覆盖。

3.高压氢还原法 在高压釜内,在催化剂存在下用氢气还原碱式碳酸镍浆料可制得平均粒径为1.0~1.2μm的镍粉。

4.蒸发冷凝法 金属镍加热到1425℃即汽化,蒸气急速冷凝即可制得镍粉。采用真空环境蒸发可以降低蒸发温度,例如在133Pa压力下加热到700℃即得到镍蒸气。急冷方式不同,生成的镍粉各具特色。在配有高效搅拌器的4升烧杯中放入由380克氢氧化钠和1.5升蒸馏水配成的溶液,把烧杯置于冰浴中使溶液冷到10℃。在搅拌下将300克镍一铝合金(含50%左右的镍)分小批量地加到溶液中,加合金的速度使温度不超过25℃。当全部合金加完后(大约需要2小时),停止搅拌,从冰浴中取出烧杯,让内容物的温度回升到室温。待氢的放出变慢时把反应混合物放在蒸汽浴上,直至氢的放出又再变慢时为止(大约8-12小时)。开始时加热不应太快,否则溶液会起泡溢出。在加热时保持溶液的体积不变,如有需要可添加蒸馏水。加热后让镍沉下去并把大部分的液体倾掉,然后加蒸馏水使溶液恢复到原来的体积;镍被搅拌而悬浮,再让它沉下,倾出溶液。然后用蒸馏水把镍转移到2升烧杯里,再倾去水。加入54克氢氧化钠与500毫升水所组成的溶液,搅拌使催化剂悬浮起来又让它沉下;倾出碱液,这样在蒸馏水里用悬浮和倾去的办法洗涤镍,直至洗涤水对石蕊呈中性,再洗10次以上以完全除去碱(需要洗涤20至40次)。.按此洗涤程序再用95%乙醇重复洗三次,每次用200毫升,最后用无水乙醇重复洗三次,然后把催化剂盛在无水乙醇的瓶子里,把瓶子塞紧。产物非常易着火,因此任何时候都必须保存在液面以下,在悬浮物中,阮内镍的含量大约为150克。

用途简介

1.主要用于制造电碳制品、摩擦材料、含油轴承及粉末冶金结构材料。 2.用于生产优质不锈钢、高温高强度合金、精密合金、其他含镍合金、加工纯镍、电真空用镍、镍盐极电镀等镍制品。 3.γ-射线辐射合成法 γ射线辐射金属镍盐溶液制备纳米镍粉的基本原理是水经γ射线辐射产生初级产物,其中还原性粒子可将金属镍离子逐级还原,新生成的镍原子聚集成核,最终生成纳米颗粒。通过控制溶液浓度、pH值、辐照剂量,可以控制微粒的尺寸和形状。加入异丙醇清除氧化剂·OH自由基,加入表面活性剂对纳米微粒进行修饰,可使其稳定存在。 4.用于电子管材料、加氢催化剂及镍盐制造。

用途

1.主要用于制造电碳制品、摩擦材料、含油轴承及粉末冶金结构材料。

2.用于生产优质不锈钢、高温高强度合金、精密合金、其他含镍合金、加工纯镍、电真空用镍、镍盐极电镀等镍制品。

3.γ-射线辐射合成法 γ射线辐射金属镍盐溶液制备纳米镍粉的基本原理是水经γ射线辐射产生初级产物,其中还原性粒子可将金属镍离子逐级还原,新生成的镍原子聚集成核,最终生成纳米颗粒。通过控制溶液浓度、pH值、辐照剂量,可以控制微粒的尺寸和形状。加入异丙醇清除氧化剂·OH自由基,加入表面活性剂对纳米微粒进行修饰,可使其稳定存在。

4.用于电子管材料、加氢催化剂及镍盐制造。[17]

镍 物化性质

外观与性状:
银色白色,硬的,有延展性的金属大块或灰色粉末
密度:
8.9
熔点:
212 °C (dec.)(lit.)
沸点:
2732 °C(lit.)
蒸汽密度:
5.8 (vs air)
存储条件/存储方法:

储存注意事项[16]  储存于阴凉、通风的库房。远离火种、热源。包装要求密封,不可与空气接触。应与氧化剂、酸类等分开存放,切忌混储。采用防爆型照明、通风设施。禁止使用易产生火花的机械设备和工具。储区应备有合适的材料收容泄漏物。

稳定性相关:

1.稳定性[12]  稳定

2.禁配物[13]  酸类、强氧化剂、硫

3.避免接触的条件[14]   空气

4.聚合危害[15]  不聚合

其它信息:

1.性状:银白色块状坚硬金属或粉末[1]

2.熔点(℃):1455[2]

3.沸点(℃):2732[3]

4.相对密度(水=1):8.90[4]

5.饱和蒸气压(kPa):0.13(1810℃)[5]

6.辛醇/水分配系数:-0.57[6]

7.溶解性:不溶于水、氨,不溶于浓硝酸,溶于稀硝酸,微溶于盐酸和硫酸。[7]

镍 安全信息

包装等级:
II
风险类别:
4.1
WGK_Germany:
3
德国有关水污染物质的分类清单
危险类别码:
R17;R40;R43
安全说明:
S26-S45-S60-S61-S36-S22-S36/37-S16-S15-S5
RTECS号:
VW4725000
危险标志:
Xn:Harmful

镍 毒理性

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
QR5950000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Nickel
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
7440-02-0
LAST UPDATED :
199712
DATA ITEMS CITED :
102
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
Ni
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
58.71
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
NI

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
250 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Vascular - regional or general arteriolar or venous dilation Liver - other changes Blood - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intratracheal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
12 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
50 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity) Behavioral - fluid intake Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - proteinuria
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - cat
DOSE/DURATION :
12500 ug/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
7 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
7500 ug/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
5 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
500 mg/kg/5D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis) Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
100 ug/m3/24H/17W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - liver function tests impaired Blood - changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) Blood - changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
50 mg/kg/5D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis) Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
500 mg/kg/5D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis) Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
100 mg/kg/5D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis) Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
1700 ug/m3/6H/5W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - changes in lung weight Biochemical - Metabolism (Intermediary) - lipids including transport
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
130 ug/m3/6H/35W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes Biochemical - Metabolism (Intermediary) - lipids including transport
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
1 mg/m3/6H/26W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
50 mg/kg/5D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis) Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
3000 mg/kg/6W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Skin and Appendages - tumors Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
56 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Musculoskeletal - tumors Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intrapleural
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
100 mg/kg/21W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Parenteral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
40 mg/kg/52W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - tumors Reproductive - Tumorigenic effects - uterine tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Implant
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
250 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Skin and Appendages - tumors Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
200 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - neoplastic by RTECS criteria Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Implant
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
165 mg/kg/2Y-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - neoplastic by RTECS criteria Reproductive - Tumorigenic effects - uterine tumors Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
15 mg/m3/91W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - tumors Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - bronchiogenic carcinoma
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - hamster
DOSE/DURATION :
200 mg/kg/21W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Musculoskeletal - tumors Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
58 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Implant
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
23 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
125 mg/kg/13W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - neoplastic by RTECS criteria Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
800 mg/kg/13W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - neoplastic by RTECS criteria Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
90 mg/kg/18W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
889 ug/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Musculoskeletal - tumors Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intrapleural
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1250 mg/kg/17W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Musculoskeletal - tumors Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intrapleural
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
125 mg/kg/21W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
200 mg/kg/21W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - neoplastic by RTECS criteria Musculoskeletal - tumors Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1 gm/kg/17W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
158 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
multigenerations
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Morphological transformation
TEST SYSTEM :
Rodent - hamster Embryo
REFERENCE :
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- Volume(issue)/page/year: 1,132,1981 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-TWA 1 mg/m3 DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 IARC Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 49,257,1990 IARC Cancer Review:Human Sufficient Evidence IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979- Volume(issue)/page/year: 7,264,1987 IARC Cancer Review:Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 49,257,1990 IARC Cancer Review:Group 2B IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 49,257,1990 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW ACLSCP Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science. (1833 Delancey Pl., Philadelphia, PA 19103) V.1- 1971- Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,156,1973 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW KOTTAM Kogai to Taisaku. Journal of Environmental Pollution Control. (Kogai Taisaku Gijutsu Dokokai, Shuwa-Akasaka Bldg., 9-1-244, Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107, Japan) V.1- 1965- Volume(issue)/page/year: 11,1300,1975 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW MIBUBI Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni. Bulletin of Microbiology. (c/o Dr. A. Tevfik Cenqiz, Ankara Universitesi Tip Fakultesi Mikrobiyoloji Ana Bilim Dah, Ankara, Turkey) V.1- 1967- Volume(issue)/page/year: 9,321,1975 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7. Volume(issue)/page/year: 9,105,1971 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW 85DHAX "Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants Series," Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences, 1972-77 Volume(issue)/page/year: Ni,168,1975 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW 85CVA2 "Oncology 1970, Proceedings of the Tenth International Cancer Congress," Chicago, Year Book Medical Pub., 1971 Volume(issue)/page/year: 5,63,1970 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW 31BYAP "Experimental Lung Cancer: Carcinogenesis and Bioassays, International Symposium, 1974," Karbe, E., and J.F. Park, eds., Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1974 Volume(issue)/page/year: -,93,1974 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. Volume(issue)/page/year: CONF-691001 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW GSAMAQ Memoir--Geological Society of America. (POB 9140, Boulder, CO 80302) No.1- 1934- Volume(issue)/page/year: 123,109,1971 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW PEXTAR Progress in Experimental Tumor Research. (S. Karger AG, Postfach CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1960- Volume(issue)/page/year: 12,102,1969 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW DICHAK Diseases of the Chest. (Chicago, IL) V.1-56, 1935-69. For publisher information, see CHETBF. Volume(issue)/page/year: 54,527,1968 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW AMTODM Advances in Modern Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1, 1976-79. Discontinued. Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,209,1977 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** MSHA STANDARD-air:TWA 1 mg/m3 DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Substances in Workroom Air," Supplements. For publisher information, see 85INA8. Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,24,1973 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 1 mg(Ni)/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 1 mg(Ni)/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 1 mg(Ni)/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 OSHA PEL (Fed Cont):8H TWA 1 mg(Ni)/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 41,50-204.50,1994 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-ARAB Republic of Egypt:TWA 0.1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:TWA 1 mg/m3 (insoluble compounds) JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 0.05 mg/m3;Carcinogen JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (dust) JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 1 mg/m3 (insoluble compounds) JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 0.1 mg/m3;Skin;Carcinogen (insoluble compounds) JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-GERMANY;Carcinogen JAN 1993 OEL-HUNGARY:STEL 0.005 mg/m3;Carcinogen (insoluble compounds) JAN 1993 OEL-JAPAN:TWA 1 mg/m3;Carcinogen JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 0.1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 1 mg/m3 (insoluble compounds) JAN 1993 OEL-THE PHILIPPINES:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-RUSSIA:STEL 0.05 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWEDEN:TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (dust) JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (insoluble compounds) JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 0.5 mg/m3;Carcinogen JAN 1993 OEL-THAILAND:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (insoluble compounds) JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (dust) JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO NICKEL, INORGANIC-air:10H CA TWA 0.015 mg(Ni)/m3 REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 50420 No. of Facilities: 1867 (estimated) No. of Industries: 55 No. of Occupations: 52 No. of Employees: 23272 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - X5096 No. of Facilities: 7 (estimated) No. of Industries: 2 No. of Occupations: 4 No. of Employees: 110 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - X5918 No. of Facilities: 678 (estimated) No. of Industries: 14 No. of Occupations: 17 No. of Employees: 6440 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 611 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - X5986 No. of Facilities: 1124 (estimated) No. of Industries: 14 No. of Occupations: 15 No. of Employees: 10233 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 80 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - X8294 No. of Facilities: 9 (estimated) No. of Industries: 1 No. of Occupations: 1 No. of Employees: 611 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 50420 No. of Facilities: 32771 (estimated) No. of Industries: 260 No. of Occupations: 116 No. of Employees: 507681 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 19673 (estimated)
毒理学数据:

1.急性毒性[8]  LD50:250mg/kg(大鼠腹腔)

2.刺激性   暂无资料

3.致突变性[9]  形态学转化:仓鼠胚胎5μmol/L;仓鼠肾400mg/L。

4.致癌性[10]  IARC致癌性评论:G2B,可疑人类致癌物。

5.其他[11]  大鼠经口最低中毒剂量(TDLo):158mg/kg(多代用药),胚胎毒性,胎鼠死亡。

 

生态数据:

1.生态毒性  暂无资料

2.生物降解性  暂无资料

3.非生物降解性  暂无资料

镍 MSDS

第一部分:化学品名称

镍 分子结构与计算化学数据

分子结构数据

1、摩尔折射率:无可用的

2、摩尔体积(cm3/mol):无可用的

3、等张比容(90.2K):无可用的

4、表面张力(dyne/cm):无可用的

5、介电常数:无可用的

6、极化率(10-24cm3):无可用的

7、单一同位素质量:57.935349 Da

8、标称质量:58 Da

9、平均质量:58.6934 Da

计算化学数据

1.疏水参数计算参考值(XlogP):无

2.氢键供体数量:0

3.氢键受体数量:0

4.可旋转化学键数量:0

5.互变异构体数量:无

6.拓扑分子极性表面积0

7.重原子数量:1

8.表面电荷:0

9.复杂度:0

10.同位素原子数量:0

11.确定原子立构中心数量:0

12.不确定原子立构中心数量:0

13.确定化学键立构中心数量:0

14.不确定化学键立构中心数量:0

15.共价键单元数量:1

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